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Whenever you reference an assignment or assessment task, you must do two things.  Firstly, you must state clearly throughout your answers where you have obtained the information you are supplying.  For example, you might write the following into your assignment: 

A photon of light with energy greater than the band gap energy between the valence and conduction bands but less than the work function energy for the semiconductor strikes an electron and is absorbed. This gives the electron sufficient energy to jump the forbidden energy gap from the valence to the conduction band.  (1)

The (1) above refers to Reference No.1 in your Bibliography.  It has been placed at the end of that section of information in your answer to inform the marker that you found this information in this particular reference.  Notice that there are no quotation marks around this information.  That means that you have read the information in the reference and then written it into your answer in your own words.

Secondly, in your Bibliography, Reference No.1 would be recorded in a format similar to the following: 

  1. Kaufmann, W.J. III, & Freedman, R.A. (1999).  Universe, (5th Edition), New York, W.H. Freeman & Company

There are many ways of referencing.  If you are not directed to use a particular type of referencing, use whatever is most appropriate BUT be consistent AND always do both halves of the referencing NOT just the Bibliography. 

Also, never quote from a reference word for word unless you put quotation marks around the whole quotation.  Otherwise, you could be accused of claiming that those words are actually yours.  Take great care not to plagiarize.  At school plagiarism may result in zero being awarded for an assessment task.  At university, however, plagiarism could result in being excluded from the degree you were studying.  Pretty serious!!!


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Last updated:

Robert Emery 2002 - view the Terms of Use of this site.